Investigation of the effect of Erythrosine B on a β-amyloid (1-40) peptide using molecular modeling method

Investigation of the effect of Erythrosine B on a β-amyloid (1-40) peptide using molecular modeling method

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Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common types of degenerative dementia. As a considerable cause of Alzheimer's disease, neurotoxic plaques composed of 39 to 42 residue-long amyloid beta(Aβ) fibrils have been found in the patient's brain in large quantity. A previous study found that erythrosine B (ER), a red color food dye approved by FDA, inhibits the formation of amyloid beta fibril structures. Here, in an attempt to elucidate the inhibition mechanism, we performed molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate the conformational change of Aβ40 induced by 2 ERs in atomistic detail. During the simulation, the ERs bound to the surfaces of both N-terminus and C-terminus regions of Aβ40 rapidly. The observed stacking of the ERs and the aromatic side chains near the N-terminus region suggests a possible inhibition mechanism in which disturbing the inter-chain stacking of PHEs destabilizes beta-sheet enriched in amyloid beta fibrils. The bound ERs block water molecules and thereby help stabilizing alpha helical structure at the main chain of C-terminus and interrupt the formation of the salt-bridge ASP23-LYS28 at the same time. Our findings can help better understanding of the current and upcoming treatment studies for Alzheimer’s disease by suggesting inhibition mechanism of ER on the conformational transition of Aβ40 at the molecular level.
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Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common types of degenerative dementia. As a considerable cause of Alzheimer's disease, neurotoxic plaques composed of 39 to 42 residue-long amyloid beta(Aβ) fibrils have been found in the patient's brain in large quantity. A previous study found that erythrosine B (ER), a red color food dye approved by FDA, inhibits the formation of amyloid beta fibril structures. Here, in an attempt to elucidate the inhibition mechanism, we performed molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate the conformational change of Aβ40 induced by 2 ERs in atomistic detail. During the simulation, the ERs bound to the surfaces of both N-terminus and C-terminus regions of Aβ40 rapidly. The observed stacking of the ERs and the aromatic side chains near the N-terminus region suggests a possible inhibition mechanism in which disturbing the inter-chain stacking of PHEs destabilizes beta-sheet enriched in amyloid beta fibrils. The bound ERs block water molecules and thereby help stabilizing alpha helical structure at the main chain of C-terminus and interrupt the formation of the salt-bridge ASP23-LYS28 at the same time. Our findings can help better understanding of the current and upcoming treatment studies for Alzheimer’s disease by suggesting inhibition mechanism of ER on the conformational transition of Aβ40 at the molecular level.
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